Monday, March 17, 2008

SAP ABAP Tutorial: Module Pool Programming. Part 2

SAP ABAP Tutorial: Module Pool Programming. Part 2

Once the program
'ZSALESORDSCREEN' is created Saved and Activated, run Transaction SE51.

Enter screen number '9000'

Screen numbers can be up to 4 characters long, all of which must be digits. Screen numbers from 9000 are reserved for customer-specific screens.
In the Screen Painter enter a short Description and Activate the screen.

Once this is done you will be presented with a screen that will have three tabs, namely Attributes/Element List/Flow Logic

Click on Element List and type Ok_Code and Activate.

Now click on Flow Logic.

You should see the following code in the Flow Logic.



MODULE STATUS_9000 by double clicking on it.  The following code will be automatically created.

INCLUDE ZSALESORDERTOP                          .                      "

* INCLUDE ZSALESORDERO01                        .                    *
* INCLUDE ZSALESORDERI01                          .                    *
* INCLUDE ZSALESORDERF01                          .                    *

*&      Module  STATUS_9000  OUTPUT
*       text
*  SET PF-STATUS 'xxxxxxxx'.
*  SET TITLEBAR 'xxx'.

ENDMODULE.                 " STATUS_9000  OUTPUT

Uncomment the following code.

  SET PF-STATUS 'ZSALES'. ------------------ Menu Bar for the custom Sales Order Screen.
  SET TITLEBAR 'ZSL'.       -------------------- Title.

Give appropriate names to PF-STATUS and TITLE BAR. Once the code is uncommented and the appropriate names are given. Double click on the name
ZSALES. Once you see the prompt click on create object.

You will see the following three options in the resulting screen.
Menu bar                                     Status for Sales Order Screen                                          
Application toolbar                      Status for Sales Order Screen                                          
Function keys                              Status for Sales Order Screen

Click on the Function Keys Drop Down Box. You will see the Standard Tool Bar with Icons that you normally see in the SAP Screen.
Enter the following values in the empty fields.

Standard Toolbar                                                                                                                             

Activate the PF-STATUS.

You will be prompted to enter the Function Text and Info Text for the button Enter.
Please enter the following values.

Function Text   'Ente'
Info Text          'Enter'

Execute Transaction SE80 and Activate the complete program by right clicking on it.

We will now create a transaction code for our program. To create a transaction code right click on the main program and from the pop-up menu select Create-----Transaction.

In the dialog box enter the following values.

Transaction Code     'ZSALESORD'
Short Description     'Create Sales Order'

And Click on Save.
You will now be asked to enter Program name and Screen Number. Enter the following values.

Screen            9000  

Save and Activate the Program

Now we need to enter code to create the Sales order. We also need to create the Screen Elements.

In transaction SE80 in the left pane click on Screens and then double click on 9000.
Now from the menu click on LAYOUT button.

We need to create Labels and Text Boxes for the following fields.

Filed  (Label Display)          Label Name              TextBox Name         Def Length
Order Type                           lblordtyp                     txtordtyp                               2
Sales Org                             lblsalesorg                  txtsalesorg                            4
Distribution Channel            lbldistchnl                   txtdistchnl                             2
Division                                lbldiv                           txtdiv                                    2
Sold-to Party                        lblsoldto                     txtsoldto                            10
Ship-to Party                        lblshipto                      txtshipto                            10
Purchase Ord                       lblpurchord                 txtpurchord                        10
Material                                lblmat                          txtmat                                18
Quantity                               lblqty                           txtqty                                 13

We also need to create a command button as follows

Label                                 Name
Create Order                     lblcreateord

We will now look at the property box which is displayed after double clicking on each screen element.

Order Type (Label)
                   Name                  lblordtyp
                   Text                    Order_Type

Order Type (Text Box)
                   Name                  txtordtyp
                   Def. Length         2

Similarly fill the Property box for other fileds


Property Box for Command Button in this case the Function Code is important

Create Order  
                           Name                  cmdord
                           Text                    Create Order           
                           Fct Code             ORDE

SAP ABAP Tutorial: Module Pool Programming. Part 3                                                                                        

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Always specify your conditions in the Where-clause instead of checking them yourself with check statements. The database system can then use an index (if possible) and the network load is considerably less.

For all frequently used Select statements, try to use an index. You always use an index if you specify (a generic part of) the index fields concatenated with logical Ands in the Select statement's Where clause. Note that complex Where clauses are poison for the statement optimizer in any database system.

If there exists at least one row of a database table or view with a certain condition, use the Select Single statement instead of a Select-Endselect-loop. Select Single requires one communication with the database system, whereas Select-Endselect needs two.

It is always faster to use the Into Table version of a Select statement than to use Append statements.

To read data from several logically connected tables use a join instead of nested Select statements. Network load is considerably less.

If you want to find the maximum, minimum, sum and average value or the count of a database column, use a select list with aggregate functions instead of computing the aggregates yourself. Network load is considerably less.

If you process your data only once, use a Select-Endselect-loop instead of collecting data in an internal table with Select Into Table. Internal table handling takes up much more space.

Use a select list or a view instead of Select * , if you are only interested in specific columns of the table. Network load is considerably less.

For all frequently used, read-only tables, try to use SAP buffering. Network load is considerably less.

Whenever possible, use array operations instead of single-row operations to modify your database tables. Frequent communication between the application program and database system produces considerable overhead.

Whenever possible, use column updates instead of single-row updates to update your database tables. Network load is considerably less.

Instead of using nested Select loops or FOR ALL ENTRIES it is often possible to use subqueries. Network load is considerably less.

Use the special operators CO, CA, CS, instead of programming the operations yourself. If ABAP/4 statements are executed per character on long strings, CPU consumption can rise substantially.

Some function modules for string manipulation have become obsolete and should be replaced by ABAP/4 statements or functions: STRING_CONCATENATE... -> CONCATENATE, STRING_SPLIT... -> SPLIT, STRING_LENGTH -> strlen(), STRING_CENTER -> WRITE...TO...CENTERED, STRING_MOVE_RIGHT -> WRITE...TO...RIGHT-JUSTIFIED

Use the CONCATENATE statement instead of programming a string concatenation of your own.

If you want to delete the leading spaces in a string, use the ABAP/4 statement SHIFT...LEFT DELETING LEADING... .Other constructions (with CN and SHIFT...BY SY-FDPOS PLACES, with CONDENSE if possible, with CN and ASSIGN CLA+SY-FDPOS(LEN) ...) are not as fast. In any case, avoid using SHIFT inside a WHILE-loop!

Use the SPLIT statement instead of programming a string split yourself.

Use the strlen( ) function to restrict the DO loop to the relevant part of the field, e.g. when determinating a check-sum.

Use "CLEAR f WITH val" whenever you want to initialize a field with a value different from the field's type-specific initial value.

Try to keep the table ordered and use binary search or used a table of type SORTED TABLE. If TAB has n entries, linear search runs in O( n ) time, whereas binary search takes only O( log2( n ) ).

A dynamic key access is slower than a static one, since the key specification must be evaluated at runtime. However, for large tables the costs are dominated by number of comparison needed to locate the entry.

If you need to access an internal table with different keys repeatedly, keep your own secondary indices.With a secondary index, you can replace a linear search with a binary search plus an index access.

LOOP ... WHERE is faster than LOOP/CHECK because LOOP ... WHERE evaluates the specified condition internally. As with any logical expressions, the performance is better if the operands of a comparison share a common type. The performance can be further enhanced if LOOP ... WHERE is combined with FROM i1 and/or TO i2, if possible.

Always use Pretty Printer and Extended Program Check before releasing the code. Do not leave unused code in the program. Comment the code thoroughly. Align the comments and the Code. Follow the SAP Standards and SAP Best Practices guidelines. It’s a good practice to take a dump of the code on your local drive.

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