SAP AND ABAP TIPS AND FACTS

Monday, February 25, 2008

Displaying Messages in ABAP

Displaying Messages in ABAP
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In ABAP you need to display a message on various occasions, for example if the user has input erroneous data then a message needs to be displayed, instructing the user to rectify the error, or after a certain task is accomplished, you may need to display a message.

A message class is used to display messages from the program and the transaction used for this purpose is SE91. The messages are stored in the table T100. Examples of calling a message are shown below.

You may need to create a message class for displaying your message. You need to check if a message class has already been created by other ABAP colleagues. Note that messages classes would already exist in your system, but you may have to create a new class for your programs.

To create a new message class type the name following the naming standards and type the name as shown in the figure below. Alternatively you can goto transaction SE91 to create a new message class.

In this example we will type the name as shown below and double click on the name 'ZEXERCISE1'.



The following prompt will appear. Click on Yes.



Click on Yes again.



Type an appropriate short text.



Create a $tmp object



Type a message that you would like to display. Please note the number associated with the message. In this case the message is '000'.



We have created 3 messages.



We now need to display these messages in our program. We will make changes in the Create Sales order program as shown below.

Some examples of calling a message.

1. MESSAGE xnnn.
2. MESSAGE ID id TYPE mtype NUMBER n.
3. MESSAGE xnnn(mid).

There are six kinds of message type:

A (Abend)
Termination
E (Error)
Error
I (Info)
Information
S (Status)
Status message
W (Warning)
Warning
X (Exit)
Termination with short dump

See the syntax shown below for displaying a message in your programs.

MESSAGE ID id TYPE mtype NUMBER n.

ID
message class in our case ZEXERCISE1 or ZEXERCISE2
TYPE
message type (A,E,I,S,W,X)
NUMBER
message number

Example

MESSAGE ID 'ZEXERCISE' TYPE 'S' NUMBER '000'.




Once the program is run the messages will be displayed as follows. Choose the one that suits your requirement.





The following message is displayed just to show as to how to explicitly call another message class.

2 comments:

RAVINDER SINGH said...

it is very much helpfull example of messages

Raja said...

It has been extremey helpful.

ABAP TIPS

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 ABAP TIPS


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 ABAP TIPS
Always specify your conditions in the Where-clause instead of checking them yourself with check statements. The database system can then use an index (if possible) and the network load is considerably less.


 ABAP TIPS
For all frequently used Select statements, try to use an index. You always use an index if you specify (a generic part of) the index fields concatenated with logical Ands in the Select statement's Where clause. Note that complex Where clauses are poison for the statement optimizer in any database system.


 ABAP TIPS
If there exists at least one row of a database table or view with a certain condition, use the Select Single statement instead of a Select-Endselect-loop. Select Single requires one communication with the database system, whereas Select-Endselect needs two.


 ABAP TIPS
It is always faster to use the Into Table version of a Select statement than to use Append statements.


 ABAP TIPS
To read data from several logically connected tables use a join instead of nested Select statements. Network load is considerably less.


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If you want to find the maximum, minimum, sum and average value or the count of a database column, use a select list with aggregate functions instead of computing the aggregates yourself. Network load is considerably less.


 ABAP TIPS
If you process your data only once, use a Select-Endselect-loop instead of collecting data in an internal table with Select Into Table. Internal table handling takes up much more space.


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Use a select list or a view instead of Select * , if you are only interested in specific columns of the table. Network load is considerably less.


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For all frequently used, read-only tables, try to use SAP buffering. Network load is considerably less.


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Whenever possible, use array operations instead of single-row operations to modify your database tables. Frequent communication between the application program and database system produces considerable overhead.


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Whenever possible, use column updates instead of single-row updates to update your database tables. Network load is considerably less.


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Instead of using nested Select loops or FOR ALL ENTRIES it is often possible to use subqueries. Network load is considerably less.


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Use the special operators CO, CA, CS, instead of programming the operations yourself. If ABAP/4 statements are executed per character on long strings, CPU consumption can rise substantially.


 ABAP TIPS
Some function modules for string manipulation have become obsolete and should be replaced by ABAP/4 statements or functions: STRING_CONCATENATE... -> CONCATENATE, STRING_SPLIT... -> SPLIT, STRING_LENGTH -> strlen(), STRING_CENTER -> WRITE...TO...CENTERED, STRING_MOVE_RIGHT -> WRITE...TO...RIGHT-JUSTIFIED


 ABAP TIPS
Use the CONCATENATE statement instead of programming a string concatenation of your own.


 ABAP TIPS
If you want to delete the leading spaces in a string, use the ABAP/4 statement SHIFT...LEFT DELETING LEADING... .Other constructions (with CN and SHIFT...BY SY-FDPOS PLACES, with CONDENSE if possible, with CN and ASSIGN CLA+SY-FDPOS(LEN) ...) are not as fast. In any case, avoid using SHIFT inside a WHILE-loop!


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Use the SPLIT statement instead of programming a string split yourself.


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Use the strlen( ) function to restrict the DO loop to the relevant part of the field, e.g. when determinating a check-sum.


 ABAP TIPS
Use "CLEAR f WITH val" whenever you want to initialize a field with a value different from the field's type-specific initial value.


 ABAP TIPS
Try to keep the table ordered and use binary search or used a table of type SORTED TABLE. If TAB has n entries, linear search runs in O( n ) time, whereas binary search takes only O( log2( n ) ).


 ABAP TIPS
A dynamic key access is slower than a static one, since the key specification must be evaluated at runtime. However, for large tables the costs are dominated by number of comparison needed to locate the entry.


 ABAP TIPS
If you need to access an internal table with different keys repeatedly, keep your own secondary indices.With a secondary index, you can replace a linear search with a binary search plus an index access.


 ABAP TIPS
LOOP ... WHERE is faster than LOOP/CHECK because LOOP ... WHERE evaluates the specified condition internally. As with any logical expressions, the performance is better if the operands of a comparison share a common type. The performance can be further enhanced if LOOP ... WHERE is combined with FROM i1 and/or TO i2, if possible.


Always use Pretty Printer and Extended Program Check before releasing the code. Do not leave unused code in the program. Comment the code thoroughly. Align the comments and the Code. Follow the SAP Standards and SAP Best Practices guidelines. It’s a good practice to take a dump of the code on your local drive.

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