Thursday, January 31, 2008

If you wish to display text in any of your reports that needs to be printed, then you can make use of text elements. It is a good practice not to hard code the text in the programs. If the text is maintained centrally, then it can be called in any report and redundancy can be avoided. Moreover if the text needs to be changed then it can be done at one place rather than changing every instance if it is hard coded.

Text element maintenance can be done in the ABAP Workbench. It is used to maintain program text in different languages. The text that program uses can be maintained centrally for a program.

Transaction SE38 (ABAP Editor)

Menu Path >>>>> Goto--------TEXT ELEMENTS---------------Selection Text

Please check the screen shots below.

Thursday, January 24, 2008

Logon to SAP
SAP database has numerous tables. For viewing the content of a particular table SAP has provided a tool which can be accessed using some transactions. An ABAP programmer can display the data of a particular table using a report but this cab be easily achieved using the tools provided by SAP. As an ABAP programmer if you wish to quickly view the contents of a particular table the best way is to use this tool and the corresponding transactions.

Enter Transaction Code SE11.

Note that transaction SE11 can be used to Display/Change/Create database tables. Other transactions for ABAP dictionary are as follows

SE12 Display
Database Tables
Data Types
Search Help
Lock Objects

SE11 Display/Change/Create
Database Tables
Data Types
Search Help
Lock Objects

SE16 and SE16N Data Browser

Enter the Table name in this case VBAK

Click on Display.

Click on COntents as shown below or use shortcut

Enter the desired data. In this case the sales order number.

The data is displayed as shown below.

Wednesday, January 23, 2008

Retrieve the data from the SAP database using the select statement and the where clause.

For database programming writing queries to retrieve the data from SAP database is essential. This is achieved with the help of the SELECT statement. There are various ways of writing the SELECT statement and we have given you a few examples below. The most essential part of the SELECT statement apart from the syntax is that the data should be selected as per the desired result. There should not be any redundancy also the efficiency of the query should be taken care of, that means the report should run quickly in the most efficient way without overloading the system.

Some examples of SAP - ABAP SELECT Statement.

WHERE mandt = '000'.
WRITE: / wa-carrid, wa-carrname.

FROM scarr UP TO 4 ROWS.
WRITE: / wa-carrid, wa-carrname.

For more examples pleas refer to SAP help click on the links given below.




Please check the following discussion on Selecting a single row.

SAP SDN Select Single row.

Tuesday, January 22, 2008

Program to display sales order header data
If your job is to write ABAP programs/ reports you need to familiarize yourself with various functionalities of SAP. The SAP Sales and Distribution module (SD) allows you to create a Sales order. As an ABAPer you need to know at least the basics of Sales order creation. The transaction for creating a sales order is VA01, to Edit Sales order is VA02 and just to display a sales order is VA03. In case you are unable to create a sales order you can play around with an existing one in the development server. First open the sales order in the display mode and understand the fields that need to be extracted. Make a note of the tables.
In this program we will display the sales order header data.

Following fields will be displayed
  • Sales Order number
  • Sold to party number
  • Ship to party
  • Buyer
  • Net Value
  • Payment Terms


1) Retrieve the data from the SAP database using the SELECT statement and the WHERE clause
2) Selecting SINGLE rows
4) Displaying data from tables using SE11
6) Data Declaration
7) Table Declaration
8) Using the WRITE statement
9) Using the debugger
10) Using double click to display the table

Tables used

VBAK Sales Document Header Data
VBPA Sales Document Partner
VBKD Sales Document Business Data

To get help on any of the statements in SAP, move the cursor on the statement and press F1

Fully Functional Sample Code for the Program.

*ABAP Report to display Sales Order Data


Tables: VBAK, " Sales Document: Header Data
VBPA, " Sales Document: Partner
VBKD. " Sales Document: Business Data

data: d_soldto(10),

Select-options: S_VBELN for vbak-vbeln.

Select vbeln
waerk into (vbak-vbeln, vbak-netwr, vbak-waerk) from vbak where
vbeln in s_VBELN.


select single kunnr
into d_buyer from vbpa where parvw = 'BU' or parvw = 'RE' and
vbeln = S_VBELN-LOW.
select single kunnr
into d_billto from vbpa where parvw = 'BP' or parvw = 'WE' and
vbeln = S_VBELN-low.
select single kunnr
into d_soldto from vbpa where parvw = 'SP' or parvw = 'AG' and
vbeln = S_VBELN-low .
select single kunnr
into d_shipto from vbpa where parvw = 'SH' and
vbeln = S_VBELN-low .

write:/ vbak-vbeln, d_buyer, vbak-netwr, d_billto, d_soldto, d_shipto,

Saturday, January 12, 2008

Creating the first program in ABAP is easy. First you need to create a user account using transaction SU01. You can also ask the SAP basis person to create a user account for you with the appropriate authorizations. Also a developer key needs to be generated this can be taken care by the basis person. The first program should be created with the following things in mind. It should be simple, and should run as quickly as possible. It should familiarize you with all the steps involved in creating any ABAP report as it is called.

Steps to create a simple program in ABAP.
1) Login to SAP.
2) Enter the transaction code SE38 as shown in the figure.
3) Hit enter.
You will then be taken to the ABAP Editor initial screen.

Enter the name starting with Y or Z as shown below. Let the source code radio button be selected and then press create.

See the attributes dialog box below.

Click on Save

Enter $tmp in development class and click on save button

Saturday, January 5, 2008


ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) is a programming language for developing applications for the SAP R/3 system, a widely-installed business application subsystem. The latest version, ABAP Objects, is object-oriented programming. SAP will run applications written using ABAP/4, the earlier ABAP version, as well as applications using ABAP Objects. ABAP is used extensively to build, customize and tune SAP as per the users requirements. ABAP is uswd for developing custom reports, Sap Scripts, Adobe Forms, Smart Forms, Interfaces, and many other applications that are specific to a particular business.

Creating your first Program in ABAP


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Always specify your conditions in the Where-clause instead of checking them yourself with check statements. The database system can then use an index (if possible) and the network load is considerably less.

For all frequently used Select statements, try to use an index. You always use an index if you specify (a generic part of) the index fields concatenated with logical Ands in the Select statement's Where clause. Note that complex Where clauses are poison for the statement optimizer in any database system.

If there exists at least one row of a database table or view with a certain condition, use the Select Single statement instead of a Select-Endselect-loop. Select Single requires one communication with the database system, whereas Select-Endselect needs two.

It is always faster to use the Into Table version of a Select statement than to use Append statements.

To read data from several logically connected tables use a join instead of nested Select statements. Network load is considerably less.

If you want to find the maximum, minimum, sum and average value or the count of a database column, use a select list with aggregate functions instead of computing the aggregates yourself. Network load is considerably less.

If you process your data only once, use a Select-Endselect-loop instead of collecting data in an internal table with Select Into Table. Internal table handling takes up much more space.

Use a select list or a view instead of Select * , if you are only interested in specific columns of the table. Network load is considerably less.

For all frequently used, read-only tables, try to use SAP buffering. Network load is considerably less.

Whenever possible, use array operations instead of single-row operations to modify your database tables. Frequent communication between the application program and database system produces considerable overhead.

Whenever possible, use column updates instead of single-row updates to update your database tables. Network load is considerably less.

Instead of using nested Select loops or FOR ALL ENTRIES it is often possible to use subqueries. Network load is considerably less.

Use the special operators CO, CA, CS, instead of programming the operations yourself. If ABAP/4 statements are executed per character on long strings, CPU consumption can rise substantially.

Some function modules for string manipulation have become obsolete and should be replaced by ABAP/4 statements or functions: STRING_CONCATENATE... -> CONCATENATE, STRING_SPLIT... -> SPLIT, STRING_LENGTH -> strlen(), STRING_CENTER -> WRITE...TO...CENTERED, STRING_MOVE_RIGHT -> WRITE...TO...RIGHT-JUSTIFIED

Use the CONCATENATE statement instead of programming a string concatenation of your own.

If you want to delete the leading spaces in a string, use the ABAP/4 statement SHIFT...LEFT DELETING LEADING... .Other constructions (with CN and SHIFT...BY SY-FDPOS PLACES, with CONDENSE if possible, with CN and ASSIGN CLA+SY-FDPOS(LEN) ...) are not as fast. In any case, avoid using SHIFT inside a WHILE-loop!

Use the SPLIT statement instead of programming a string split yourself.

Use the strlen( ) function to restrict the DO loop to the relevant part of the field, e.g. when determinating a check-sum.

Use "CLEAR f WITH val" whenever you want to initialize a field with a value different from the field's type-specific initial value.

Try to keep the table ordered and use binary search or used a table of type SORTED TABLE. If TAB has n entries, linear search runs in O( n ) time, whereas binary search takes only O( log2( n ) ).

A dynamic key access is slower than a static one, since the key specification must be evaluated at runtime. However, for large tables the costs are dominated by number of comparison needed to locate the entry.

If you need to access an internal table with different keys repeatedly, keep your own secondary indices.With a secondary index, you can replace a linear search with a binary search plus an index access.

LOOP ... WHERE is faster than LOOP/CHECK because LOOP ... WHERE evaluates the specified condition internally. As with any logical expressions, the performance is better if the operands of a comparison share a common type. The performance can be further enhanced if LOOP ... WHERE is combined with FROM i1 and/or TO i2, if possible.

Always use Pretty Printer and Extended Program Check before releasing the code. Do not leave unused code in the program. Comment the code thoroughly. Align the comments and the Code. Follow the SAP Standards and SAP Best Practices guidelines. It’s a good practice to take a dump of the code on your local drive.

Ole Automation Part1
Ole Automation Part 2
Processing Blocks in ABAP
Simple ABAP Report
ALV Grid - Changing Colors
ALV Report Example
Creating Variants For ABAP Reports
Recording BDC using Transaction
Sales Document Flow in ABAP
User Exits in SAP SD
SAP ABAP Naming Standards
SAP SD Tables
SAP ABAP Data Dictionary Tables
MM Important Transaction Codes in SAP
Passing g Data From One ABAP Program to Another
ABAP Compute Add Collect and Append
SAP ABAP Determining Attributes of Data
SAP ABAP Editor Icons
BAPI for Displaying Material Data
BAPI to get customer bank details
EDI Outbound Process
SAP EDI Process Overview
Function Module for Vendor Bank details
Creating a Valid Password in SAP
SAP BADIs Introduction
POP UP function Module to Confirm and Save Data
Select Options
BAPI for availability check
String to Numerical
SAP Goods Movement Process
Getting a List of Plants for a Material
SAP R3 Clients Concept
ABAP Adobe Forms
Authorization Object Tables
SAP Industry Specific Solutions

Sap Scripts and SmartForms Bar Codes
Standard Reports and Sap Scripts
Important Standard Reports in SAP
Abap Tricks and Tips
Bapi Sales Order
BAPI Purchase Order
Creating Function Modules in SAP
Creating Tables in SAP
Finding User Exits in SAP
Function Module Create Text and Read Text
Important Transaction Codes in SAP
ABAP Function Module for Submitting a Program
ABAP Game Tic Tac Toe
ABAP Internal Table To Excel Sheet
ABAP Function Module to create Directory
Different Types of Menus in SAP
Function Modules in SAP to check Loged in Users
ABAP Function Module for Adding Days to Dates
Call a Transaction From a Remote System
SAP MM simple Procurement Cycle
BAPI Material EDIT
Finding Decimal Places in Currency
Getting negative sign before a number in ABAP
Program Editor Lock Unlock
Restricting Select Options
List of BAPIs in the system
SAP Function Module Scramble a String
POP up table contents on the screen
SAP R3 Bookmarking Websites
Stock Requirements List Function Module
Retail Transaction Codes
ABAP Debugger Break Points
ABAP Debugger WatchPoints
Drill Down Reports Concept
Creating a HOT SPOT
Interactive Programs and Hide Technique
String Concatenate
Get Week of the Year
SAP ABAP to Add Days to a Date
Add Months to a Date
Get Month in the Year
Display Clock

ABAP Code For Progress BAR
ABAP Function Module For Caluclator
ABAP Function Module For Calender
Displaying Messages in ABAP
Function Module Pop Up To Confirm
Conversion Routines in SAP
SAP ABAP Authorization
SAP ABAP Module Pool Tutorial

Finding Path to SAP Transaction in Menu
SAP Purchasing Documents
SAP and ABAP Shortcuts
Logical Databases
Advantages of Logical Databases
Copy to Clipboard
BAPI Create Material
Finding and Running Programs in ABAP
Program Syntax Check and Extended Syntax Check
Select Options upper lower case
BAPI Sales Order Simulate
Get PLANT and Description for a Material
MRP List Function Module
Production Planning and Controlling
Applications in SAP R3
Tool Based Reports
Important Transaction Codes in SAP
SAP Stock per Bin
Pop Up a Calender
Module to Read a File
Module to Reverse A String
Run an Executable Program with Parameters
Program for POP up Screen
Printing Selection Parameters for a Report
Uploading and DownLoading a Report
SAP ABAP Version Management
SAP ABAP Short Cuts
List of Important System Variables

ABAP Calling a File Selector
Some Important Function Modules
ABAP String Operations

ABAP Function Module to Check Validity of Date
Transfer Internal Table Contents to a File

SAP ABAP Program Types
BAPI to Read Customer Data
Checking Validity of Date
Download to Application Server
ABAP Debugger Breakpoint and Watchpoint
BAPI to get Company Code Details
Creating Material Using BAPI part 2
Generating a Valid Password
Logical Databases Structure
Making Fields OBligatory in Selection Screen
ABAP Views
Getting a Company Code for a Plant
Importing contents of Clipboard in SAP
Getting a Plant for a Material
Plant Material and Storage Location
SAP Production Planning Standard Reports
NetWeaver Components
Supported Databases and Operating Systems