Wednesday, March 19, 2008

Examining Function Modules in SAP ABAP

Examining Function Modules in SAP ABAP

Prior to creating a new function module, you need to create a function group. Some examples of function groups are given below.

Add one more function module to the same Function Group, goto SE80 and see the result.

V02D Customer Master: Read/Block
VBAK Business Object Sales
STXD SAPscript program interface

Take time to go through each of the function module components. We will examine each of them in this post.

Required transactions are as folows.

Transaction Description
SE37 Function Builder Initial
SE80 Object Navigator

Run transaction SE37, and in the resulting screen click on the attributes TAB as shown below.

Now you can run transaction SE80, to check the Function Modules, Subroutines and Includes associated with this group. This way you can find out related function modules. For example if a particular function module does not satisfy your requirement, then you can search for a related function module in the same group.

See the figure below.

Now you know how to identify similar function modules in SAP ABAP.

Now Let us see the components that the SAP system created when a function group is created.Create a new function group from transaction SE80 and see all the components associated with it. See the figure below.

As you can see two includes have been created as follows.


In the TOP include, LZTEMPTOP you can place all the global data definations, these will be global to all the function modules in this group.

The second include program namely LZTEMPUXX should not be modified. The SAP R/3 system automatically places all the includes that you create in this include.
When you double click on this include just after creating the Function Group you see the following message in the left pane.

*   THIS FILE IS GENERATED BY THE FUNCTION LIBRARY.                           *
*   NEVER CHANGE IT MANUALLY, PLEASE!                                                *

Every time a function module is added to a Function Group, SAP R/3 will
add a new statement to the UXX. The include for the first function module
will be 01, the second 02 and so on

Create one more function module, add it to the same group, goto SE80 and see the result, you will notice that the system has generated one more Include named LZTEMPU02. In this case TEMP is specific to the names given for this example.

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Always specify your conditions in the Where-clause instead of checking them yourself with check statements. The database system can then use an index (if possible) and the network load is considerably less.

For all frequently used Select statements, try to use an index. You always use an index if you specify (a generic part of) the index fields concatenated with logical Ands in the Select statement's Where clause. Note that complex Where clauses are poison for the statement optimizer in any database system.

If there exists at least one row of a database table or view with a certain condition, use the Select Single statement instead of a Select-Endselect-loop. Select Single requires one communication with the database system, whereas Select-Endselect needs two.

It is always faster to use the Into Table version of a Select statement than to use Append statements.

To read data from several logically connected tables use a join instead of nested Select statements. Network load is considerably less.

If you want to find the maximum, minimum, sum and average value or the count of a database column, use a select list with aggregate functions instead of computing the aggregates yourself. Network load is considerably less.

If you process your data only once, use a Select-Endselect-loop instead of collecting data in an internal table with Select Into Table. Internal table handling takes up much more space.

Use a select list or a view instead of Select * , if you are only interested in specific columns of the table. Network load is considerably less.

For all frequently used, read-only tables, try to use SAP buffering. Network load is considerably less.

Whenever possible, use array operations instead of single-row operations to modify your database tables. Frequent communication between the application program and database system produces considerable overhead.

Whenever possible, use column updates instead of single-row updates to update your database tables. Network load is considerably less.

Instead of using nested Select loops or FOR ALL ENTRIES it is often possible to use subqueries. Network load is considerably less.

Use the special operators CO, CA, CS, instead of programming the operations yourself. If ABAP/4 statements are executed per character on long strings, CPU consumption can rise substantially.

Some function modules for string manipulation have become obsolete and should be replaced by ABAP/4 statements or functions: STRING_CONCATENATE... -> CONCATENATE, STRING_SPLIT... -> SPLIT, STRING_LENGTH -> strlen(), STRING_CENTER -> WRITE...TO...CENTERED, STRING_MOVE_RIGHT -> WRITE...TO...RIGHT-JUSTIFIED

Use the CONCATENATE statement instead of programming a string concatenation of your own.

If you want to delete the leading spaces in a string, use the ABAP/4 statement SHIFT...LEFT DELETING LEADING... .Other constructions (with CN and SHIFT...BY SY-FDPOS PLACES, with CONDENSE if possible, with CN and ASSIGN CLA+SY-FDPOS(LEN) ...) are not as fast. In any case, avoid using SHIFT inside a WHILE-loop!

Use the SPLIT statement instead of programming a string split yourself.

Use the strlen( ) function to restrict the DO loop to the relevant part of the field, e.g. when determinating a check-sum.

Use "CLEAR f WITH val" whenever you want to initialize a field with a value different from the field's type-specific initial value.

Try to keep the table ordered and use binary search or used a table of type SORTED TABLE. If TAB has n entries, linear search runs in O( n ) time, whereas binary search takes only O( log2( n ) ).

A dynamic key access is slower than a static one, since the key specification must be evaluated at runtime. However, for large tables the costs are dominated by number of comparison needed to locate the entry.

If you need to access an internal table with different keys repeatedly, keep your own secondary indices.With a secondary index, you can replace a linear search with a binary search plus an index access.

LOOP ... WHERE is faster than LOOP/CHECK because LOOP ... WHERE evaluates the specified condition internally. As with any logical expressions, the performance is better if the operands of a comparison share a common type. The performance can be further enhanced if LOOP ... WHERE is combined with FROM i1 and/or TO i2, if possible.

Always use Pretty Printer and Extended Program Check before releasing the code. Do not leave unused code in the program. Comment the code thoroughly. Align the comments and the Code. Follow the SAP Standards and SAP Best Practices guidelines. It’s a good practice to take a dump of the code on your local drive.

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